Advantages & Limitation of MPT

Advantages Of MPT:

1.Detects flaw below ¼” below surface.

  1. Detects flaw filled with foreign material.
  2. Detect defect below painted & platted surface.
  3. Immediate indication.
  4. Testing is possible up 300°C using dry powder.
  5. Indication can recorded.

Limitation of MPT :

1.Applicable to only ferromagnetic material only.

2.Limited depth of detection.

3.Depth & size is not indicated.

4.Sensitivity varies with surface roughness & position.

5.Sensitivity rapidly diminishes with depth.

Detection of leakage field :

Detection of leakage field :
Finely divided iron particles are used for detection of leakage field. Leakage  field at the surface collects and hold the iron particles together to form visible indication patterns.

  • Flaws at or near the surface disturb the magnetic flux flow and produce leakage field at surface above the flaw.
  • Magnetic particle build up at the leakage field produces recognizable patterns which are interpreted.
  • Color of the particles must be chosen to provide adequate contrast against the part’s natural color.

Discontinuities at or near the surface produce magnetic leakage field on the surface

Discontinuities at or near the surface produce magnetic leakage field on the surface :
Magnetic flux in a magnetized part pass through the body of the part. Discontinuities at or near the surface of the part disturb the normal flow of magnetic flux and leakage flux fields are produced on the surface above the discontinuities. These leakage fields attract  iron particles and are detected by applying iron powders.

Water washable Penetration method

Water-Washable, is the most economical method & it has not replaceable for rough casting surface, threaded & key surfaces.

 

  1.  Water-washable or self-emulsifiable penetrants contain an emulsifier as an integral part of the formulation.
  2. The excess penetrant is  removed from the object surface with a simple water rinse.
  3. Penetrant materials have the property of forming relatively viscous gels upon contact with water, which results in the formation of gel-like plugs in surface openings.
  4. While they are completely soluble in water, given enough contact time, the plugs offer a brief period of protection against rapid wash removal. Thus, water-washable penetrant systems provide ease of use and a high level of sensitivity.

Step in Solvent removable method.

5. Inspection:

Inspection  with visible dye penetrant  with minimum whate light intensity 100 foot-candles or 1100 lux  shall follow. Ultraviolet (UV-A) radiation of minimum intensity 1,000 micro-watts per centimeter squared is common, along with low ambient light levels (less than 2 foot-candles) for fluorescent penetrant examinations. Inspection of the test surface should take place after 10- to 30-minute development time, and is dependent on the penetrant and developer used. This time delay allows the blotting action to occur. The inspector may observe the sample for indication formation when using visible dye. It is also good practice to observe indications as they form because the characteristics of the bleed out are a significant part of interpretation characterization of flaws.

6. Post Cleaning:

The test surface is often cleaned after inspection and recording of defects, especially if post-inspection coating processes are recommended as per PT procedure.

Penetrant test method

Penetrant Classification System
Penetrants Type:
Type 1 Fluorescent Dye
Type 2 Visible (Red) Dye

Removal Method:
Method A Water Washable
Method B Post Emulsifiable, lipophilic (oil base)
Method C Solvent
Method D Post Emulsifiable, hydrophilic (water base)

Removers
Class 1 Halogenated (non-flammable)
Class 2 Nonhalogenated (flammable)
Class 3 Special Application

Developers Form:
Form a Dry Powder
Form b Water Soluble
Form c Water Suspendable
Form d Nonaqueous Type 1 Fluorescent (solvent based)
Form e Nonaqueous Type 2 Visible (solvent based)
Form f Special Application
Fluorescent Sensitivity*
Level 1/2 Ultra Low
Level 1 Low
Level 2 Medium
Level 3 High
Level 4 Ultra High